Disparities in REsults of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Treatment (DiRECT): A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer Survivors Treated With Anti-PD-1/Anti-PD-L1 Immunotherapy in a Community Oncology Setting


This study compares treatment outcomes between patients of African American/Black (AA) ancestry and European American/White (EA) ancestry currently receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment. Collecting samples of blood and saliva and health and treatment information from racially diverse patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment over time may help doctors better understand health care disparities among all cancer patients.

I'm interested

Male or Female
18 years and over
This study is NOT accepting healthy volunteers
Inclusion Criteria:

• self-identify as African/African American/black (AA), or European American/ Caucasian/white (EA), or Hispanic/Latino ethnicity in combination with an AA or EA racial identity
• current diagnosis of invasive cancer at stage I-IV
• scheduled to receive anti-PD-1/-L1 ICI-containing therapy as standard of care treatment alone or in combination with co-treatments
Exclusion Criteria:

• identify as Asian, Pacific Islander, or American Indian/Alaskan Native
• diagnosed with melanoma (because melanoma is very rare in AAs)
• received prior immunotherapy for cancer,


Immune checkpoint inhibitor, Cancer, Disparities

Kristen Nelson -
Edward Greeno, M.D.
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